古特雷斯:性别不平等是最普遍的侵犯人权行为
作者: 资料来源:性别研究视界 发布时间:2021-02-26

联合国人权理事会第46次会议日前在日内瓦万国宫开幕。联合国秘书长安东尼奥·古特雷斯以视频方式出席并发表致辞。


他敦促会员国重视将联合国“人权行动呼吁”付诸实施的紧迫感,尤其是要保障基本自由,维护性别平等,保护公民空间,确保数字技术成为行善的工具。


以下为中英对照版讲话全文。



秘书长人权理事会第46届会议致辞全文

Secretary-General's Message to the Opening of the 46th Regular Session of the Human Rights Council



尊敬的人权理事会主席,高级专员女士,

Distinguished President of the Human Rights Council,
Madam High Commissioner,


各位阁下,女士们、先生们,
Excellencies, Ladies and gentlemen,

人权是我们的血脉;它们把我们平等地联系在一起。

Human rights are our bloodline; they connect us to one another, as equals.


人权是我们的生命线;它们是化解紧张局势和打造持久和平的必由之路。

Human rights are our lifeline; they are the pathway to resolving tensions and forging lasting peace.


人权就在前线;它们是人人皆享尊严和机会的世界之基石,却每天都在遭受攻击。

Human rights are on the frontline; they are the building blocks of a world of dignity and opportunity for all – and they are under fire every day.


人权理事会是应对各种人权挑战的全球中心。

The Human Rights Council is the global locus for tackling the full range of human rights challenges. 


我感谢各位从事这项重要工作,并欢迎所有会员国和民间社会参与其中。

I thank you for that vital work — and welcome the engagement of Member States and civil society.


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© 联合国图片 | 2020年6月30日,中国代表出席在日内瓦举行的人权理事会第44届会议


一年前,我向你们发出了“人权行动呼吁”。

One year ago, I came before you to launch a Call to Action for Human Rights.


我们借用《世界人权宣言》原文用语,将这个以价值观为基础、以尊严为驱动力的呼吁定名为“最高愿望”。

We named this values-based and dignity-driven appeal “The Highest Aspiration” — drawing from the words of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights itself. 


这个短语提醒人们,确保人权既是必要之举,又是不断推进的持续性工作。

That phrase is a reminder that securing human rights is both essential and a constant work in progress.    


已有的成果很容易付诸东流。

Gains can be easily undone. 


四伏的危机有可能瞬间而至。

Perils can strike in any instant.


去年我们开会后不久,2019冠状病毒病(COVID-19)疫情来势汹汹,席卷全球。

Soon after our gathering last year, COVID-19 hit the world without mercy.


这场大流行病昭示我们人类大家庭乃至所有人权,包括公民、文化、经济、政治和社会权利,皆相互关联,彼此相通。

The pandemic revealed the interconnectedness of our human family — and of the full spectrum of human rights — civil, cultural, economic, political and social.


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© 联合国图片 | 美国纽约,新冠大流行期间,一位爸爸带着孩子走在街头


冠状病毒病疫情既加深了原有分歧、脆弱性和不平等,又撕开了新的裂痕,包括造成人权方面的断层。

COVID-19 has deepened pre-existing divides, vulnerabilities and inequalities, as well as opened up new fractures, including fault-lines in human rights.


我们看到侵犯人权行为形成恶性循环。

We are seeing a vicious circle of violations. 


数亿家庭的生活被严重搅乱,人们失去工作,负载累累,收入骤减。

The lives of hundreds of millions of families have been turned upside down — with lost jobs, mounting debt and steep falls in income.


疫情尤其给妇女、少数群体、残疾人、难民、老人、移民和土著人民造成严重损失。

The disease has taken a disproportionate toll on women, minorities, persons with disabilities, older persons, refugees, migrants and indigenous peoples.


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© 联合国图片 | 新冠大流行正在使众多原本脆弱的群体居于更加不利处境


性别平等方面取得的进步倒退了多年。

Progress on gender equality has been set back years.


极端贫困率几十年来首次上升。

Extreme poverty is rising for the first time in decades.


年轻人在苦苦挣扎,他们失去了学业,获得技术的机会往往也十分有限。

Young people are struggling, out of school and often with limited access to technology. 


最近令人感到义愤的是,疫苗接种工作未能确保公平。

The latest moral outrage is the failure to ensure equity in vaccination efforts. 


到目前为止,10个国家使用的冠状病毒病疫苗居然占了疫苗总数的75%。

Just ten countries have administered more than 75 per cent of all COVID-19 vaccines.  


疫苗公平就是维护人权。疫苗民族主义就是罔顾人权。

Vaccine equity affirms human rights.  Vaccine nationalism denies it.


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© 联合国儿基会图片 | 通过新冠疫苗获取机制取得的60万剂疫苗抵达加纳首都阿克拉


疫苗必须成为全球公共产品,让所有人都用得上、用得起。

Vaccines must be a global public good, accessible and affordable for all. 


冠状病毒还殃及政治权利和公民权利,进一步压缩了公民空间。

The virus is also infecting political and civil rights and further shrinking civic space.


 一些国家当局以疫情为借口,采取高压安全对策和紧急措施镇压异己,将行使基本自由定为犯罪,压制独立报道,限制非政府组织的活动。

Using the pandemic as a pretext, authorities in some countries have deployed heavy-handed security responses and emergency measures to crush dissent, criminalize basic freedoms, silence independent reporting and curtail the activities of non-governmental organisations.


人权维护者、记者、律师、政治活动人士乃至专业医护人员因批评政府的抗疫举措或不作为而被拘留、起诉并受到恐吓和监视。

Human rights defenders, journalists, lawyers, political activists — and even medical professionals — are being detained, prosecuted and subjected to intimidation and surveillance for criticizing government pandemic responses — or the lack thereof.


疫情相关限制被用来颠覆选举进程,削弱反对派的话语权和压制批评。

Pandemic-related restrictions are being used to subvert electoral processes, weaken opposition voices and suppress criticism.


冠状病毒病救命信息的获取渠道有时被某些人包括当权者隐瞒,而致命错误信息则被放大。

At times, access to life-saving COVID-19 information has been concealed— while deadly misinformation has been amplified — including by those in power. 


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© 联合国图片 | 世界卫生组织正在通过和社交媒体平台合作减轻关于疫苗错误信息激增的问题


冠状病毒病的“信息疫情”引发了人们对数字平台的覆盖范围不断扩大以及数据的使用和滥用情况更普遍的担忧。

The COVID-19 infodemic has raised alarms more generally about the growing reach of digital platforms and the use and abuse of data.


我们的大量个人信息被收集汇总,但我们却根本没有进入这个数据库的钥匙。

At times, access to life-saving COVID-19 information has been concealed— while deadly misinformation has been amplified — including by those in power. 


我们不知道这些信息如何收集,由谁收集,也不知道收集的目的。

We don’t know how this information has been collected, by whom or for what purposes.


这些数据被用于商业用途,包括广告、营销和提高公司利润。

That data is being used commercially — for advertising, for marketing and for beefing up corporate bottom lines.  


行为模式被作为商品,像期货合约一样出售。

Behavior patterns are being commodified and sold like futures contracts.


这造就了新的商业模式和全新行业,为财富日益集中和不平等推波助澜。

This has created new business models and entirely new industries that have contributed to an ever-greater concentration of wealth and inequality.


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© 联合国儿基会图片 | 孟加拉国首都达卡街头的外卖送餐员


我们的数据还被用来塑造和操纵我们的认知,而我们却毫无察觉。

Our data is also being used to shape and manipulate our perceptions, without our ever realizing it.  


政府可以利用这些数据控制本国公民的行为,侵犯个人或群体的人权。

Governments can exploit that data to control the behavior of their own citizens, violating human rights of individuals or groups.  


所有这些都不是科幻小说,也不是对22世纪非理想化社会的预测。

All of this is not science fiction or a forecast of a 22nd-century dystopia.  


这些情况就发生在此时此地。对此需要进行认真的讨论。

It is here and now.  And it requires a serious discussion.  


我们已经制定了数字合作路线图,以期找到前进方向。

We have developed a Roadmap for Digital Cooperation to find a way forward.


我敦促所有会员国将人权置于数字技术开发和使用监管框架和立法的核心位置。

I urge all Member States to place human rights at the centre of regulatory frameworks and legislation on the development and use of digital technologies.


我们需要一个安全、公平和开放且不侵犯隐私或尊严的数字未来。

We need a safe, equitable and open digital future that does not infringe on privacy or dignity.


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© 联阿援助团图片 | 阿富汗西部的一群女孩正在一家技术中心学习编写代码


各位阁下,

Excellencies,


 “人权行动呼吁”是推进联合国最重要工作的一个综合性框架。该工作的范围既包括实现可持续发展、开展气候行动,也包括保障基本自由、维护性别平等,还包括保护公民空间、确保数字技术成为行善的工具。

Our Human Rights Call to Action is a comprehensive framework to advance our most important work — from sustainable development to climate action, from protecting fundamental freedoms to gender equality, the preservation of civic space and ensuring that digital technology is a force for good.


今天,我要向大家表达对于加大力度将“人权行动呼吁”付诸实施的紧迫感。

Today, I come before you with a sense of urgency to do even more to bring our Human Rights Call to Action to life.


我想把重点放在两个领域,因为这两个领域亟需采取行动,同时又存在极其庞大艰巨的挑战。

I want to focus on two areas where the imperative for action is great — and the scale of the challenge looms large.


其一是如何消灭种族主义、歧视、仇外行为的瘟疫。

First, the blight of racism, discrimination and xenophobia. 


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© Unsplash | 英国反种族歧视游行现场


其二是如何铲除性别不平等这个最普遍的侵犯人权行为。

And, second, the most pervasive human rights violation of all: gender inequality. 


加重这些恶行的因素是世界上不公正现象的两个最深远根源:几个世纪的殖民主义遗产、几千年来顽固不变的重男轻女做法。

These evils are fed by two of the deepest wells of injustice in our world: the legacy of centuries of colonialism; and the persistence, across the millennia, of patriarchy.


种族主义与性别不平等如影随从,这一点也显而易见。二者最恶劣的影响见于少数种族和少数民族妇女所遭受的重重歧视之中。

The linkages between racism and gender inequality are also unmistakable. Some of the worst impacts of both are in the overlaps and intersections of discrimination suffered by women from racial and ethnic minority groups.


煽动种族主义、鼓动反犹太主义、散布反穆斯林偏见、对一些占少数的基督徒群体实施暴力、仇视同性恋、仇外、厌女,凡此种种都不是什么新鲜事。

Stoking the fires of racism, anti-Semitism, anti-Muslim bigotry, violence against some minority Christian communities, homophobia, xenophobia and misogyny is nothing new.


这些现象只是变得更加公开、更容易引发了,而且蔓延到了全球。

It has just become more overt, easier to achieve, and globalized.


当我们允许诋毁任何一个人时,就为妖魔化所有人开了先例。

When we allow the denigration of any one of us, we set the precedent for the demonization of all of us.


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© 联合国图片 | 帝国大厦熄灭灯光,支持“黑人的命也是命”抗议活动


各位阁下,

Excellencies,


腐朽的种族主义思维正在侵蚀公共机构、社会结构、日常生活。这种侵蚀有时是无形的、隐蔽的。

The rot of racism eats away at institutions, social structures and everyday life — sometimes invisibly and insidiously.


我感到高兴的是,人们在全球争取种族正义的斗争中日益觉醒,奋起抗击贬低和忽视他人的行为,而且领头抗争者往往是妇女和青年。

I welcome the new awakening in the global fight for racial justice, a surge of resistance against being reduced or ignored —often led by women and young people.

正如这些领头人所强调的那样,此事任重道远。

As they have highlighted, we have a long way to go.


我赞扬人权理事会决定就系统性种族主义、问责与补救、对反种族主义和平抗议的反应等方面情况进行报告,同时我也期待相关方采取具体行动。

I commend the Human Rights Council decision to report on systemic racism, accountability and redress, and responses to peaceful anti-racism protests — and look forward to concrete action.


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© MINUSCA | 一位印尼女警察教孩子们如何正确清洗双手


我们对于死灰复燃的新纳粹主义、白人至上主义、出于种族主义和民族主义动机的恐怖主义,也必须加大打击力度。

We must also step up the fight against resurgent neo-Nazism, white supremacy and racially and ethnically motivated terrorism.   


这些基于仇恨的运动所造成的危险正与日俱增。

The danger of these hate-driven movements is growing by the day. 


我们必须指明这些运动的性质:白人至上运动和新纳粹运动不仅仅是国内恐怖主义威胁。

Let us call them what they are:  White supremacy and neo-Nazi movements are more than domestic terror threats.  


它们正在成为跨国威胁。

They are becoming a transnational threat.


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© 联合国图片 | 有关纳粹大屠杀的展览


此类团体和其他类似团体借大流行病之机煽动社会极端化、用政治及文化手段蛊惑人心,以求扩大其成员队伍。

These and other groups have exploited the pandemic to boost their ranks through social polarization and political and cultural manipulation.   


当前,这些极端主义运动在几个国家对内部安全形成了头号威胁。

Today, these extremist movements represent the number one internal security threat in several countries. 


某些个人和团体正在掀起一场仇恨活动狂潮,包括在国内外的网站上筹集资金、招募人员、传播理念,还包括前往国外搭伙训练、相互交流仇恨意识。

Individuals and groups are engaged in a feeding frenzy of hate — fundraising, recruiting and communicating online both at home and overseas, travelling internationally to train together and network their hateful ideologies.   


一些身居要职者竟然多次给这类仇恨团体呐喊助威。这在不久之前还是令人难以想象的现象。

Far too often, these hate groups are cheered on by people in positions of responsibility in ways that were considered unimaginable not long ago. 


为了战胜这个日益严重的威胁,我们必须在全球范围开展协调一致的行动。

We need global coordinated action to defeat this grave and growing danger.


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© 联合国图片 | 联合国秘书长古特雷斯访问巴基斯坦旁遮普省的一座锡克教神庙


各位阁下,

Excellencies,


我们还必须特别重视维护少数群体的权利,因为他们中许多人在世界各地受到威胁。

We must also place a special focus on safeguarding the rights of minority communities, many of whom are under threat around the world.


少数族群是各国丰富文化社会结构的一部分。

Minority communities are part of the richness of our cultural and social fabric. 


人类福祉离不开生物的多样性,人类同样离不开族群的多样性。

Just as biodiversity is fundamental to human well-being, the diversity of communities is fundamental to humanity.


然而,当前不仅存在各种形式的歧视,还有人企图以同化政策抹去少数族群的文化特性与宗教特性。

Yet we see not only forms of discrimination but also policies of assimilation that seek to wipe out the cultural and religious identity of minority communities. 

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© 联合国难民署图片 | 被迫从缅甸出逃的罗兴亚人


当少数族群的文化、语言、信仰受到攻击时,我们所有人都是受损害者。

When a minority community’s culture, language or faith are under attack, all of us are diminished.


在当局打着安全的幌子怀疑某些群体的全体成员时,我们所有人都是受威胁者。

When authorities cast suspicion on entire groups under the guise of security, all of us are threatened.


这些举动注定适得其反。

These measures are doomed to backfire. 


我们必须继续推动实施相关政策,做到充分尊重人权以及宗教特性、文化特性、独特的人文特性。

We must continue to push for policies that fully respect human rights and religious, cultural and unique human identity.


我们同时还必须创造条件,使每个族群都感到自己是整个社会完完全全的一份子。

And we must simultaneously nurture the conditions for each community to feel that they are fully part of society as a whole.


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© 联合国教科文组织图片 | 在意大利,自我隔离的人们正在表达团结


各位阁下,

Excellencies,


性别不平等的普遍程度没有哪个人权苦难可与之相比。

No human rights scourge is more prevalent than gender inequality.


冠状病毒病大流行进一步加剧了对妇女和女童根深蒂固的歧视。

The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated entrenched  discrimination against women and girls.


这场危机对女性的影响尤其严重。

The crisis has a woman’s face. 


大多数重要的一线工作人员是女性,其中许多人来自种族和族裔上受到边缘化的群体,处于经济阶梯的最底层。

Most essential frontline workers are women — many from racially and ethnically marginalized groups and at the bottom of the economic ladder.


家庭照护方面增加的负担大多由女性承担。

Most of the increased burden of care in the home is taken on by women.


从网上虐待到家庭暴力、贩运、性剥削和童婚,各种形式的暴力侵害妇女和女童行为急剧增加。

Violence against women and girls in all forms has skyrocketed, from online abuse to domestic violence, trafficking, sexual exploitation and child marriage.


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© 联合国儿基会图片 | 毛里塔尼亚的学生在学校因疫情关闭数月后返回课堂


女性失业率更高,陷入贫困的人数更多。

Women have suffered higher job losses and been pushed into poverty in greater numbers.


而除此之外由于收入较低、工资存在差距以及一生中获得机会、资源和保护较少,她们的社会经济状况本就已经很脆弱。

This is on top of already fragile socio-economic conditions due to lower incomes, the wage gap, and a lifetime of less access to opportunities, resources and protections. 


这一切都不是偶然发生的。

None of this happened by accident.


而是世代受到排斥的结果。

It is the result of generations of exclusion. 


归根结底是一个权力问题。

It comes down to a question of power.


一个由男性主导的世界和男性主导的文化将产生以男性为主的结果。

A male-dominated world and a male-dominated culture will yield male-dominated results. 


与此同时,抗击疫情的工作也凸显了女性领导力的威力和效果。

At the same time, the COVID-19 response has highlighted the power and effectiveness of women’s leadership.


女性生活得如何可能是衡量整个社会健康状况最准确的晴雨表之一。

The lives of women are perhaps one of the most accurate barometers of the health of society as a whole.

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© 联合国人道协调厅图片 | 布基纳法索妇女在田间劳作


一个社会如何对待自己的一半人口,是它如何对待其他人的一个重要指标。我们的权利是密不可分的。

How a society treats half its own population is a significant indicator of how it will treat others.  Our rights are inextricably bound.


这就是为什么我作为一名自豪的女权主义者兑现了自己关于在联合国领导层中实现性别均等的承诺。

This is why, as a proud feminist, I have delivered on my commitment to make gender parity a reality in the leadership of the UN.


我已将性别平等作为整个联合国的一个首要优先事项。

And I have made gender equality a leading priority for the Organization as a whole.


这并不只是哪一个人或哪一个机构的责任。如果我们要成为一个包容、可信、有效的国际组织,所有人都要承担这项工作。

This is not just the responsibility of any individual or agency.  If we are to be an inclusive, credible, and effective international Organization, it is the work of everyone.


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© 联合国妇女署图片 | 支持性别平等游行活动


我决心开展更多工作。

I am committed to doing much more. 


联合国“人权行动呼吁”的一个专门重点就是在全球范围内废除所有歧视性法律。

Our Call to Action on Human Rights has a specific emphasis on repealing all discriminatory laws globally.


并通过采取雄心勃勃的行动,包括使用配额等暂行特别措施,在每个部门和每个层级实现妇女的平等参与和代表权。

And on achieving women’s equal right to participation and representation, in every sector and at every level through ambitious actions, including temporary special measures such as quotas.


实现这一权利将使我们所有人受益。

Realizing this right will benefit all of us.


人为问题(我是有意选择这个词的)使我们有机会以人为方式加以解决。

The opportunity of man-made problems – and I choose these words deliberately – is that they have human-led solutions.


但只有通过共同的领导和决策,以及平等参与的权利,才能找到这些解决办法。

But these solutions can only be found through shared leadership and decision-making and the right to equal participation.


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© 联合国视频截图 | 纪念北京世界妇女大会25周年高级别在线会议上,男性国家元首发表维护女性权利主张


各位阁下,

Excellencies,


全球每个角落都在遭受侵犯人权之苦。

Every corner of the globe is suffering from the sickness of violations of human rights. 


当然,有一些国家的情况极其令人担忧,其中一些情况还旷日持久。正是在这个方面,人权理事会及其机制对于提高认识、保护人民、保持对话、寻找解决办法具有至关重要的作用。

Of course there are a number of extremely concerning country situations — some of them very prolonged – and this is where the Human Rights Council and its mechanisms are so vital in raising awareness, protecting people, maintaining dialogue and finding solutions. 


我今天所概述的各项挑战非常明显地反映在一个国家,那就是缅甸。我感谢人权理事会最近及时关注该国局势。

I thank the Human Rights Council for your recent and timely focus on a situation where the challenges that I outlined today are dramatically evident — and that is the case of Myanmar. 


我们看到民主遭到破坏,野蛮使用武力,人们被任意逮捕、受到各种形式的镇压;公民空间遭到限制;民间社会受到攻击;发生了严重侵犯少数族裔的行为而不受追究,包括对罗兴亚人实施了名副其实的族裔清洗。此类行为不胜枚举。

We see the undermining of democracy, the use of brutal force, arbitrary arrests, repression in all its manifestations.  Restrictions of civic space.  Attacks on civil society.  Serious violations against minorities with no accountability, including what has rightly been called ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya population.  The list goes on. 


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© 人口基金孟加拉国办事处图片 | 缅甸暴力事件中逃往孟加拉国的罗兴亚人


这一切汇聚成了一场十足的动乱风暴。

It is all coming together in a perfect storm of upheaval. 


今天,我呼吁缅甸军方立即停止镇压,释放囚犯,停止暴力,尊重人权和人民在最近的选举中所表达的意愿。

Today, I call on the Myanmar military to stop the repression immediately.  Release the prisoners.  End the violence.  Respect human rights, and the will of the people expressed in recent elections.


政变在当今世界没有立足之地。

Coups have no place in our modern world. 


我欢迎人权理事会的决议,并承诺落实理事会的要求,同时表达我对缅甸人民追求民主、和平、人权和法治的全力支持。

I welcome the resolution of the Human Rights Council, pledge to implement your request, and express my full support to the people of Myanmar in their pursuit of democracy, peace, human rights and the rule of law.


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© 联合国图片 | 缅甸全国民主联盟主席昂山素季


各位阁下,

Excellencies,


世界各地的人们仰赖我们保障和保护他们的权利。

People around the world are relying on us to secure and protect their rights.


在疫情使人权问题成为焦点的同时,恢复工作也使我们有机会形成势能,推动变革。

With the pandemic shining a spotlight on human rights, recovery gives us an opportunity to generate momentum for transformation.


此时此刻,我们必须重启、重塑、重建!我们必须在人人享有人权和人类尊严的前提下恢复得更好。

Now is the time to reset.  To reshape.  To rebuild.  To recover better, guided by human rights and human dignity for all.


我相信只要我们下定决心、共同努力,就能实现这个目标。

I am convinced it is possible – if we are determined and if we work together.


谢谢大家。

Thank you.